Physics Research Papers Free Download

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To highlight this release, the APS has made a selection of articles available. These FREE TO READ articles include many which are of current or historic interest to the general public - papers on a winning strategy for online bidding (Yang and Kahng, Phys. Rev. E 73, 067101 (2006)) and the dynamics of epidemics (Gross et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 208701 (2006)),which were highlighted in the New York Times earlier this year; and, in honor of Albert Einstein, all 38 articles in the 1949 special issue of Reviews of Modern Physics commemorating his seventieth birthday, as well as the famous Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paper (Phys. Rev. 47, 777 (1935)) challenging quantum mechanics and Niels Bohr's response (Phys. Rev. 48, 696 (1935)).

We are also pleased to announce that the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) has shown its support of FREE TO READ by financing two recent publications, Benedetto et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 034801 (2006) and Giovannini, Phys. Rev. D 74, 063002 (2006).

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The following article is Open access

Charge pattern matching as a 'fuzzy' mode of molecular recognition for the functional phase separations of intrinsically disordered proteins

Yi-Hsuan Lin et al 2017 New J. Phys.19 115003

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Biologically functional liquid–liquid phase separation of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) is driven by interactions encoded by their amino acid sequences. Little is currently known about the molecular recognition mechanisms for distributing different IDP sequences into various cellular membraneless compartments. Pertinent physics was addressed recently by applying random-phase-approximation (RPA) polymer theory to electrostatics, which is a major energetic component governing IDP phase properties. RPA accounts for charge patterns and thus has advantages over Flory–Huggins (FH) and Overbeek–Voorn mean-field theories. To make progress toward deciphering the phase behaviors of multiple IDP sequences, the RPA formulation for one IDP species plus solvent is hereby extended to treat polyampholyte solutions containing two IDP species plus solvent. The new formulation generally allows for binary coexistence of two phases, each containing a different set of volume fractions for the two different IDP sequences. The asymmetry between the two predicted coexisting phases with regard to their ratios for the two sequences increases with increasing mismatch between their charge patterns. This finding points to a multivalent, stochastic, ‘fuzzy’ mode of molecular recognition that helps populate various IDP sequences differentially into separate phase compartments. An intuitive illustration of this trend is provided by FH models, whereby a hypothetical case of ternary coexistence is also explored. Augmentations of the present RPA theory with a relative permittivity that depends on IDP volume fraction lead to higher propensities to phase separate, in line with the case with one IDP species we studied previously. Notably, the cooperative, phase-separation-enhancing effects predicted by the prescriptions for we deem physically plausible are much more prominent than that entailed by common effective medium approximations based on Maxwell Garnett and Bruggeman mixing formulas. Ramifications of our findings on further theoretical development for IDP phase separation are discussed. byReferences

A search for new physics in dijet mass and angular distributions in pp collisions at  TeV measured with the ATLAS detector

G Aad et al 2011 New J. Phys.13 053044

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A search for new interactions and resonances produced in LHC proton–proton ( pp) collisions at a centre-of-mass energy was performed with the ATLAS detector. Using a dataset with an integrated luminosity of 36 pb − 1, dijet mass and angular distributions were measured up to dijet masses of ~3.5 TeV and were found to be in good agreement with Standard Model predictions. This analysis sets limits at 95% CL on various models for new physics: an excited quark is excluded for mass between 0.60 and 2.64 TeV, an axigluon hypothesis is excluded for axigluon masses between 0.60 and 2.10 TeV and quantum black holes are excluded in models with six extra space–time dimensions for quantum gravity scales between 0.75 and 3.67 TeV. Production cross section limits as a function of dijet mass are set using a simplified Gaussian signal model to facilitate comparisons with other hypotheses. Analysis of the dijet angular distribution using a novel technique simultaneously employing the dijet mass excludes quark contact interactions with a compositeness scale Λ below 9.5 TeV. byReferences

The following article is Open access

Controlled double-slit electron diffraction

Roger Bach et al 2013 New J. Phys.15 033018

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Double-slit diffraction is a corner stone of quantum mechanics. It illustrates key features of quantum mechanics: interference and the particle-wave duality of matter. In 1965, Richard Feynman presented a thought experiment to show these features. Here we demonstrate the full realization of his famous thought experiment. By placing a movable mask in front of a double-slit to control the transmission through the individual slits, probability distributions for single- and double-slit arrangements were observed. Also, by recording single electron detection events diffracting through a double-slit, a diffraction pattern was built up from individual events. byReferences

A simple route to a tunable electromagnetic gateway

Huanyang Chen et al 2009 New J. Phys.11 083012

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Transformation optics is used to design a gateway that can block electromagnetic waves but allows the passage of other entities. Our conceptual device has the advantage that it can be realized with simple materials and structural parameters and can have a reasonably wide bandwidth. In particular, we show that our system can be implemented by using a magnetic photonic crystal structure that employs a square array of ferrite rods, and as the field response of ferrites can be tuned by external magnetic fields, we end up with an electromagnetic gateway that can be open or shut using external fields. The functionality is also robust against the positional disorder of the rods that make up the photonic crystal. byReferences

Traffic jams without bottlenecks—experimental evidence for the physical mechanism of the formation of a jam

Yuki Sugiyama et al 2008 New J. Phys.10 033001

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A traffic jam on a highway is a very familiar phenomenon. From the physical viewpoint, the system of vehicular flow is a non-equilibrium system of interacting particles (vehicles). The collective effect of the many-particle system induces the instability of a free flow state caused by the enhancement of fluctuations, and the transition to a jamming state occurs spontaneously if the average vehicle density exceeds a certain critical value. Thus, a bottleneck is only a trigger and not the essential origin of a traffic jam. In this paper, we present the first experimental evidence that the emergence of a traffic jam is a collective phenomenon like 'dynamical' phase transitions and pattern formation in a non-equilibrium system. We have performed an experiment on a circuit to show the emergence of a jam with no bottleneck. In the initial condition, all the vehicles are moving, homogeneously distributed on the circular road, with the same velocity. The average density of the vehicles is prepared for the onset of the instability. Even a tiny fluctuation grows larger and then the homogeneous movement cannot be maintained. Finally, a jam cluster appears and propagates backward like a solitary wave with the same speed as that of a jam cluster on a highway. byReferences

The following article is Open access

Latent heat of traffic moving from rest

S Farzad Ahmadi et al 2017 New J. Phys.19 113034

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Contrary to traditional thinking and driver intuition, here we show that there is no benefit to ground vehicles increasing their packing density at stoppages. By systematically controlling the packing density of vehicles queued at a traffic light on a Smart Road, drone footage revealed that the benefit of an initial increase in displacement for close-packed vehicles is completely offset by the lag time inherent to changing back into a ‘liquid phase’ when flow resumes. This lag is analogous to the thermodynamic concept of the latent heat of fusion, as the ‘temperature’ (kinetic energy) of the vehicles cannot increase until the traffic ‘melts’ into the liquid phase. These findings suggest that in situations where gridlock is not an issue, drivers should not decrease their spacing during stoppages in order to lessen the likelihood of collisions with no loss in flow efficiency. In contrast, motion capture experiments of a line of people walking from rest showed higher flow efficiency with increased packing densities, indicating that the importance of latent heat becomes trivial for slower moving systems.

The following article is Open access

Physics of knuckleballs

Baptiste Darbois Texier et al 2016 New J. Phys.18 073027

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Zigzag paths in sports ball trajectories are exceptional events. They have been reported in baseball (from where the word knuckleball comes from), in volleyball and in soccer. Such trajectories are associated with intermittent breaking of the lateral symmetry in the surrounding flow. The different scenarios proposed in the literature (such as the effect of seams in baseball) are first discussed and compared to existing data. We then perform experiments on zigzag trajectories and propose a new explanation based on unsteady lift forces. In a second step, we exploit wind tunnel measurements of these unsteady lift forces to solve the equations of motion for various sports and deduce the characteristics of the zigzags, pointing out the role of the drag crisis. Finally, the conditions for the observation of such trajectories in sports are discussed.

One path to acoustic cloaking

Steven A Cummer and David Schurig 2007 New J. Phys.9 45

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A complete analysis of coordinate transformations in elastic media by Milton et al has shown that, in general, the equations of motion are not form invariant and thus do not admit transformation-type solutions of the type discovered by Pendry et al for electromagnetics. However, in a two-dimensional (2D) geometry, the acoustic equations in a fluid are identical in form to the single polarization Maxwell equations via a variable exchange that also preserves boundary conditions. We confirm the existence of transformation-type solutions for the 2D acoustic equations with anisotropic mass via time harmonic simulations of acoustic cloaking. We discuss the possibilities of experimentally demonstrating acoustic cloaking and analyse why this special equivalence of acoustics and electromagnetics occurs only in 2D. byReferences

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The following article is Open access

Strain effects on borophene: ideal strength, negative Possion's ratio and phonon instability

Haifeng Wang et al 2016 New J. Phys.18 073016

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Very recently, two-dimensional (2D) boron sheets (borophene) with rectangular structures were grown successfully on single crystal Ag(111) substrates (Mannix et al 2015 Science350 1513). The fabricated boroprene is predicted to have unusual mechanical properties. We performed first-principle calculations to investigate the mechanical properties of the monolayer borophene, including ideal tensile strength and critical strain. It was found that monolayer borophene can withstand stress up to 20.26 N m −1 and 12.98 N m −1 in a and b directions, respectively. However, its critical strain was found to be small. In the a direction, the critical value is only 8%, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the lowest among all studied 2D materials. Our numerical results show that the tensile strain applied in the b direction enhances the bucking height of borophene resulting in an out-of-plane negative Poisson’s ratio, which makes the boron sheet show superior mechanical flexibility along the b direction. The failure mechanism and phonon instability of monolayer borophene were also explored. byReferences

The following article is Open access

The properties of isolated chiral skyrmions in thin magnetic films

A O Leonov et al 2016 New J. Phys.18 065003

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Axisymmetric solitonic states ( chiral skyrmions) were first predicted theoretically more than two decades ago. However, until recently they have been observed in a form of skyrmionic condensates (hexagonal lattices and other mesophases). In this paper we report experimental and theoretical investigations of isolated chiral skyrmions discovered in PdFe/Ir(111) bilayers two years ago by Romming et al (2013 Science341 636). The results of spin-polarized scanning tunneling microscopy analyzed within the continuum and discrete models provide a consistent description of isolated skyrmions in thin layers. The existence region of chiral skyrmions is restricted by strip-out instabilities at low fields and a collapse at high fields. We demonstrate that the same equations describe axisymmetric localized states in all condensed matter systems with broken mirror symmetry, and thus our findings establish basic properties of isolated skyrmions common for chiral liquid crystals, different classes of noncentrosymmetric magnets, ferroelectrics, and multiferroics. byReferences

The following article is Open access

Majorana box qubits

Stephan Plugge et al 2017 New J. Phys.19 012001

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Quantum information protected by the topology of the storage medium is expected to exhibit long coherence times. Another feature is topologically protected gates generated through braiding of Majorana bound states (MBSs). However, braiding requires structures with branched topological segments which have inherent difficulties in the semiconductor–superconductor heterostructures now believed to host MBSs. In this paper, we construct quantum bits taking advantage of the topological protection and non-local properties of MBSs in a network of parallel wires, but without relying on braiding for quantum gates. The elementary unit is made from three topological wires, two wires coupled by a trivial superconductor and the third acting as an interference arm. Coulomb blockade of the combined wires spawns a fractionalized spin, non-locally addressable by quantum dots used for single-qubit readout, initialization, and manipulation. We describe how the same tools allow for measurement-based implementation of the Clifford gates, in total making the architecture universal. Proof-of-principle demonstration of topologically protected qubits using existing techniques is therefore within reach. byReferences

The following article is Open access

Competition of tolerant strategies in the spatial public goods game

Attila Szolnoki and Matjaž Perc 2016 New J. Phys.18 083021

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Tolerance implies enduring trying circumstances with a fair and objective attitude. To determine whether evolutionary advantages might be stemming from diverse levels of tolerance in a population, we study a spatial public goods game, where in addition to cooperators, defectors, and loners, tolerant players are also present. Depending on the number of defectors within a group, a tolerant player can either cooperate in or abstain from a particular instance of the game. We show that the diversity of tolerance can give rise to synergistic effects, wherein players with a different threshold in terms of the tolerated number of defectors in a group compete most effectively against defection and default abstinence. Such synergistic associations can stabilise states of full cooperation where otherwise defection would dominate. We observe complex pattern formation that gives rise to an intricate phase diagram, where invisible yet stable strategy alliances require outmost care lest they are overlooked. Our results highlight the delicate importance of diversity and tolerance for the provisioning of public goods, and they reveal fascinating subtleties of the spatiotemporal dynamics that is due to the competition of subsystem solutions in structured populations. byReferences

The following article is Open access

Large scale mechanical metamaterials as seismic shields

Marco Miniaci et al 2016 New J. Phys.18 083041

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Earthquakes represent one of the most catastrophic natural events affecting mankind. At present, a universally accepted risk mitigation strategy for seismic events remains to be proposed. Most approaches are based on vibration isolation of structures rather than on the remote shielding of incoming waves. In this work, we propose a novel approach to the problem and discuss the feasibility of a passive isolation strategy for seismic waves based on large-scale mechanical metamaterials, including for the first time numerical analysis of both surface and guided waves, soil dissipation effects, and adopting a full 3D simulations. The study focuses on realistic structures that can be effective in frequency ranges of interest for seismic waves, and optimal design criteria are provided, exploring different metamaterial configurations, combining phononic crystals and locally resonant structures and different ranges of mechanical properties. Dispersion analysis and full-scale 3D transient wave transmission simulations are carried out on finite size systems to assess the seismic wave amplitude attenuation in realistic conditions. Results reveal that both surface and bulk seismic waves can be considerably attenuated, making this strategy viable for the protection of civil structures against seismic risk. The proposed remote shielding approach could open up new perspectives in the field of seismology and in related areas of low-frequency vibration damping or blast protection. byReferences

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The following article is Open access

Non-additive dissipation in open quantum networks out of equilibrium

Mark T Mitchison and Martin B Plenio 2018 New J. Phys.20 033005

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We theoretically study a simple non-equilibrium quantum network whose dynamics can be expressed and exactly solved in terms of a time-local master equation. Specifically, we consider a pair of coupled fermionic modes, each one locally exchanging energy and particles with an independent, macroscopic thermal reservoir. We show that the generator of the asymptotic master equation is not additive, i.e. it cannot be expressed as a sum of contributions describing the action of each reservoir alone. Instead, we identify an additional interference term that generates coherences in the energy eigenbasis, associated with the current of conserved particles flowing in the steady state. Notably, non-additivity arises even for wide-band reservoirs coupled arbitrarily weakly to the system. Our results shed light on the non-trivial interplay between multiple thermal noise sources in modular open quantum systems.

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