Bibliography For Project

This is a listing of publicly-accessible texts which engage, in some direct way, with the history and condition of the academic discipline and institutionalised pursuit of “English Studies” (the English language, literature in English, Anglophone cultural studies) in Indian higher education (beyond high school) and research. The emphasis is on the academic discipline as it has been or is practised within the territories of the state of India, and on the public accessibility of listed texts (in print or electronically). The listing is naturally very far from complete. Details of further entries would be very gratefully received, and inserted after being checked – please email these to   

Advani, Shalini (2009). Schooling the National Imagination: Education, English and the Indian Modern. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Contents: Introduction; Part 1: The Policy Landscape// 1. Becoming True Indians: Language, History, Modernity; 2. Language and the Postcolonial Predicament; 3. Education for Nationalism. Part 2: The Culture of Textbooks// 4. Constructing the Nation; 5. Normalizing Boundaries; 6. En-gendering the Nation. Part 3: Entering the School Gates// 7. Using Texts: An Ethnography of the Classroom. Conclusion: Nationalist Pedagogy, Sub-National Identities, Transnational Desires

Agnihotri, R.K. and A.L. Khanna (1997). Problematizing English in India. Delhi: Sage.

Chapters: Machine derived contents note: Language and Power; The Imperial Design; English in Post-independence India; Pedagogy of English; The Study; Sample Profile; Social and Individual Aspects of English in India; Elite Views; Conclusion.

Alam, Qaiser Zoha (1999). English Language Teaching in India: Problems and Issues. Delhi: Atlantic.

Chapters: The Teaching of English in India: Changing Scenario; Literary Criticism Can Wait; Appropriate English Language Teaching Technology; English Spelling – the Problems of Indian Learners; School Final Students and the Use of Preposition; The Preposition and the Undergraduate; Remedying Errors; Linguistics and Language Teaching; A Registral variety of Indian English; Humour and Translation: Evidence from indian English; An Aspect of Indian English.

Chatterjee, Kalyan K. (1976). English Education in India: Issues and Opinions.

Chapters: 1. Issues and Events: How it all Came About; 2. The Utilitarian Concern: Useful Knowledge and a Rational Morality; 3. Macaulayism: Response and Reaction; 4. The Renaissance Analogy: The Spread of an Idea; 5. The Moral Concern and the Pursuit of the Millennium; 6. The Oriental Vision: Synthesis and Indigenization; 7. Orientalism in Action: Translation and the Comparative Manner; 8. The Evangelist Thesis: Fide et Bonis Litteris; 9. Time’s Mirror: What are the Roots that Clutch.

Dash, Santosh (2009). English Education and the Question of Indian Nationalism: A Perspective on the Vernacular. Delhi: Aakar.

Chapters: Colonial Education and Native Agency; The Making of the National Elite; English and the Politics of the Vernacular; English in a Democratic Nation

Krishnaswamy, N. and Lalitha Krishnaswamy (2006). The Story of English in India. Delhi: Foundation. 

Chapters: The exploration and transportation phase; The consolidation phase: The grand design; The dissemination phase; The identity phase; The globalization phase

McCully, Bruce Tiebout (1940). English Education and the Origins of Indian Nationalism. New York: Columbia University Press.

Mukherjee, Alok K. (2009). This Gift of English: English Education and the Formation of Alternative Hegemonies in India. Delhi: Orient Blackswan.

Chapters: Introduction: A Personal Trajectory; Situating the Study; "This Gift of English": Setting the Stage; "The Most Beneficial and Lasting Legacy": Colonial Versus Revivalist Hegemony; The "Gift" Casts Its Spell--Part I: English Literature and Language Curriculum in Colonial India; The 'Gift" Casts its Spell-Part II: Texts, Examination and Hegemony; In the "Gift"'s Aftermath.

Narasimhaiah, C.D. (2002). English Studies in India: Widening Horizons. Delhi: Pencraft International.

Chapters: Introduction. I. Exploratory // 1. The comparative approach: multilateral scruitinies; 2. Commonwealth literature: search for alternative paradigms. II. English literature // 3. Shakespeare and the Indian sensibility; 4. On re-reading Milton; 5. Rudyard Kipling: conflict-resolutions of an outsider/insider; 6. English studies in the England of 1970s. III. Indian English literature // 7. Understanding Indian writing in English; 8. Aurobindo: inaugurator of modern Indian criticism; 9. Raja Rao: Novel as magic casement; 10. Should Indian writing in English replace English literature in our Academia. IV. American literature // 11. Inaugural address at a seminar on American literature; 12. The distinctiveness of American literature; 13. Creative America’s response to Emerson, Thoreau and T.S. Eliot. V. Australian literature // 14. Flowering of Australian literature; 15. Exploring the Australasian bonds. VI. African literature // 16. African poetry; 17. Where angels fear to tread : Chinua Achebe and Wole Soyinka as critics of African Ambience. VII. The West Indies, the Asia-Pacific region, and Canada // 18. Nobel prize for Derek Walcott; 19. A community of islands: the cultures and literatures of the Asia-Pacific region; 20. Canadian poetry in English. VIII. Related issues and concerns // 21. Commonwealth literature or post-colonial writing?; 22. Language literature controversy; 23. Towards the concept of a national literature for India.

Narasimhaiah, C.D. (1977). Moving Frontiers of English Studies in India. Delhi: S. Chand.

Chapters: 1. Indian Writing in English; 2. India and the Literature of the Commonwealth; 3. The Indian Critical Heritage: Its Relevance Today; 4. Search for Values in Literary Criticism; 5. An Indian Footnote on T.S. Eliot Scholarship on The Waste Land

Poddar, Prem (2002). Violent Civilities: English, India, Culture. Aarhus: Aarhus University Press.

Chapters: Introduction: 'Supplemental Accounts'; 'News from the Power-Lines': Transporting Postcolonial Theory; 'Our Commerce Will Follow': Englishing India;  'The State of Culture': National Imaginings;  'The Mirror is Empty': Postcolonial English studies;  Conclusion: 'deigns to travel...'

Prasad, G.J.V. (2011). Writing India, Writing English: Literature, Language, Location. Delhi: Routledge India.

Chapters: Preface; Part I. India, English, Translation // 1. A Minute Stretching into Centuries: Macaulay, English and India; 2. Translating Dalit Tamil Literature into English; 3. Tamil, Hindi, English: A New Ménage à Trois; 4. Trans-creating India(s): The Nation in English Translation; 5. Karnad, Tughlaq, India. Part II: Indian English Literature and the Nation // 6. Writing India, Writing English; 7. Romance in the West: Toru Dutt the Novelist; 8. Food for Thought: The Tamil Word of R. K. Narayan; 9. Always in the Poet’s Eye: Nissim Ezekiel’s India; 10. India in Verse: The Indian English Nation; 11. Terrifying Tara: The Angst of the Family.

Thiagarajan, Jayasudha (2010). Classroom Management and Quality Control: An Action Research with Postcolonial Perspective. Sarabruken, Germany: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing.

Chapters: 1. Introduction; 2. Theoretical Framework; 3. Quality as Tool for Action Research; 4. Action Research and Case Studies; 5. Conclusion

Trivedi, Harish (1993). Colonial Transactions. Calcutta: Papyrus / Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995.

Chapters: Part I. Reception: English literature in India // 1. Shakespeare in India: colonial contexts; 2. Orientalism translated: omar Khayyam through Persian, English and Hindi; 3. Nationalism, Internationalism, Imperialism: Tagore on England and the West; 4. T.S. Eliot in Hindi: modes of reception. Part II. Representation: India in English Literature // 5. Byron and the East: from ‘orientalism’ to liberty; 6. ‘That he is an Englishman and I a Bengali’: Rabindranath Tagore and Edward Thompson; 7. ‘Ganga was sunken…’: T.S. Eliot’s use of India; 8. Passage or Farewell? Politics of the Raj in E.M. Forster and Edward Thompson. Part III. Reorientation: a postcolonial agenda // 9. Reading English, writing Hindi: English literature and Indian creative writing; 10. Panchadhatu: teaching English literature in the Indian literary context.

Viswanathan, Gauri (1989). Masks of Conquest: Literary Study and British Rule in India. London: Faber and Faber.

Chapters: Introduction; 1. The Beginnings of English Literary Study; 2. Praeparatio Evangelica; 3. "One Power, One Mind"; 4. Rewriting English; 5. Lessons of History; 6. The Failure of English; 7. Conclusion: Empire and the Western Canon.

Edited books

Agnihotri, R.K. and A.L. Khanna (1995). English language teaching in India : issues and innovations. Delhi: Sage.

Chapters: Introduction / R. K. Agnihotri and A. L. Khanna; 1. English Teaching in India: Past, Present and Future / N. Krishnaswamy and T. Sriraman; 2. Subjecting English / Rajeswari Sunder Rajan; 3. Resisting Industriality / Probal Dasgupta; 4. Teaching Language through Language / Usha Nagpal; 5. Literary Bias in Teaching of English as a Second Language / Raja Ram Mehrotra; 6. Use of Indian Culture and Myths in ELT / S. C. Narula; 7. The Tailor's Dummy: The Influence of Cultural Content of ESL Materials on Learner Output / Ranu V. Vanikar and Katayun K. Palia; 8. Achievement Levels of English among College Entrants / A. L. Khanna; 9. Needs-Analysis of the Indian Learners of English / Mohammad Aslam; 10. Need of the Indian Undergraduate Learners / S. C. Sood; 11. Media and Language Acquisition / R. Amritavalli; 12. A Two-tier Approach to the Teaching of English at the School Level / Soumini Pananghat; 13. Medium of Instruction in a Multilingual Context / Anju S. Gupta; 14. Classroom Interaction in Different Subject Classes: Implications for Bilingual Education Programmes and Curriculum Design in ESL / Karuna Kumar; 15. ELT and Grammar Teaching / R. P. Bhatnagar; 16. Grammar, Cognitive Abilities and Second Language Learning / Achla Misri Raina and R. K. Agnihotri; 17. Evaluation of a Mainstream Innovative Language Skills Course / Yasmeen Lukmani; 18. Professional Development of Teachers of English: Issues and Concerns / Sunil Kumar; 19. The Need for ELT Training for College Lecturers / Raj Kumar Khanna; 20. Curriculum Change in Process: The Case of an ELT Project / Prem Mathur; 21. Currents of Change in Teaching of English in CBSE Affiliated Schools: A Background Note / S. K. Gangal; 22. Telescoping the Past Six Years of the CBSE-ELT Project / Kiran Bhatt.

Aikant, Satish C. (2004). Critical Spectrum : Essays in Literary Culture. Delhi: Pencraft International.

Chapters include:  Introduction/ Satish C. Aikant. I. Culture/metaculture // 1. Some thoughts on the puzzle of identity/ Nayantara Sahgal; 2. Problematizing hybridity: the diasporic versus the stay-at-home writer/ Jasbir Jain; 3. Crossing cultures: Australia and the Asia-Pacific/ Bruce Bennett; 4. Culture and decolonization/ Satish C. Aikant; 5. Decolonizing English studies: towards Svaraj/ Makarand Paranjape; 6. A tangle of Indian English translation issues/ John Oliver Perry; 7. Reading and teaching translation/ Meenakshi Mukherjee; 8. The torture-point of song and the logistics of metaphor/ Syd Harrex; 9. C.D. Narasimhaiah: towards a common poetics for modern India/ K.C. Belliappa.

Ghotra, Balvinder ed. (2005). English Studies in India: Past, Present, and Future. Jaipur: Book Enclave.

Chapters: 1. Brand of shame or mark of destiny: The legacy of English in India/ Vinod Sena; 2. The great tradition of English studies in India/ Grace Romona J. Vaseeker; 3. English studies in India: yesterday, today and tomorrow/ Ranjana Mehrotra; 4. Reviewing coherence in teaching writing skill/ Rajul Bhargavaa; 5. Writing skills: The nuts and bolt/ Gunjan Chaturvedi; 6. Developing intermediate and advanced learners' English: Writing skills by communicative methods/ Susheela Beniwal; 7. Use of English in India: Elitism vs. effective communication/ Melva Pope; 8. The crisis of English studies in India/ AK Sinha; 9. Teaching of English in bilingual patterns of India: Classroom-oriented problems and prospects/ Jaydeep Sarangi; 10. Language learning in a bilingual setting English as a target language in India/ Nirupma Sharma; 11. Role of mother tongue in the teaching of English/ O.T. Poongodi; 12. An overview of English studies in India: With a focus on Haryana/ Geeta Rani Bindal; 13. English in Nagaland: A socio-functional view/ Seyie Whiso and N.D.R. Chandra; 14. Linguistic deficiency of tribal learners: How to mend it?/ G.S. Rathore; 15. Making ELT more meaningful to the students of professional education/ Meenakshi Raman; 16. Evaluation of ESL textbooks: A case study of XII Std. ESL textbooks in Maharashtra/ Radheshyam Dipte; 17. Role of literature in teaching English as a second language in India/ Asha Sharma; 18. Moving from English literature to literature in English/ V. Madhuramozhi; 19. Learners' poor achievement in English: Shift from traditional to need-based Syllabi/ Anupama Vohra; 20. Learners' poor achievement in English: Causes and remedies/ Vidya Kumar; 21. Learners' poor achievement in English: Causes and remedies/ S. Leela and O.T. Poongodi; 22. Commonsensical approach to teaching of English/ N.S. Kullur; 23. Newspapers: Treasure trove of idioms and phrases/ Umesh Arya Jangid; 24. Grammar should not be taught: It should be caught/ S. Kirubhakaran; 25. Chironomic method of teaching English grammar: English through five-fingers of one's hand/ Ramji Yadav; 26. Technology-enhanced language learning/ G. Subramanian and Devadas; 27. Teaching beyond classroom/ G. Damodar; 28. Teaching beyond classroom/ Mustufa Khan; 29. Creative writing in ESL classes/ Chandralekha Rao; 30. English in India: Today's strength and tomorrow's hope/ A. Joycilin Shermila; 31. English studies in India: A futuristic perspective/ K. Venkata Reddy

Gupta, R.S. and Kapil Kapoor eds. (1991). English in India; Issues and Problems. Delhi: Academic Foundation.

Chapters: 1. Introduction : English in India — Issues and Problems/ Kapil Kapoor and R.S. Gupta; 2. A Brief Note on Indianisms in Indian English/ V.K. Gokak; 3. English and Imperial Expansion/ Tulsi Ram; 4. The Failure of English as a Lingua Franca in India/ Anjuli Gupta; 5. English and Indian Culture/ N.B. Meena; 6. English in education/ S.K. Sareen; 7. English in Business and Administration/ Jennifer Bayer; 8. On Varieties of Indian English : Some Questions Regarding Foreign Language Varieties/ Shyamal Ghosh; 9. Sound Patterns of Indian English — A Sociolinguistic Perspective/ R.K. Agnihotri; 10. Indian English Today/ R.N. Srivastava and V.P. Sharma; 11. English and Indian Languages: Code-Mixing/ R.S. Gupta; 12. Teaching Spoken English in India/ Kapil Kapoor; 13. Writing in the Other Tongue: Expository Prose in Indian English/ Yamuna Kachru; 14. The Writer as Reader: Speculations on Some Sources of Nineteenth Century Literature in India/ Meenakshi Mukherji; 15. Impact of English on Indian Literature/ Aruna Sitesh; 16. Commitment to the Environment: Indian Poetry in English/ G.J.V. Prasad

Joshi, Svati ed. (1991). Rethinking English: Essays in Literature, Language, History. New Delhi: Trianka.

Chapters: 1. Rethinking English: An Introduction/ Svati Joshi; 2. Relating Histories: Definitions of Literacy, Literature, Gender in Nineteenth Century Calcutta and England/ Kumkum Sangari; 3. Translation, Colonialism and the Rise of English/ Tejaswini Niranjana; 4. Shakespeare in Loin Cloths: English Literature and the Early Nationalist Consciousness in Bengal/ Jasodhara Bagchi; 5. The Arrangement of an Alliance: English and the Making of Indian Literatures/ Susie Tharu; 6. Reading English, Writing Hindi: English Literature and Indian Creative Writing/ Harish Trivedi; 7. Disciplinary English: Third-Worldism and Literature/ Aijaz Ahmad; 8. A Note on Language, and the Politics of English in India/ Badri Raina; 9. Out Here: An English Teacher in the Provinces/ Alok Rai; 10. English Textbook, Indian Publisher/ Urvashi Butalia

Kar, Prafulla C., Kailash C. Baral and Sura P. Rath eds. (2003). Theory and Praxis: Curriculum, Culture and English Studies. Delhi: Pencraft International.

Chapters: Introduction; 1. Modernity and postmodernity/ Fred Dallmayr; 2. Columbus runs aground: Christmas Eve, 1492/ Stephen Greenblatt; 3. Unmasking colonial linguistico-cultural transactions—whither?/ S. Viswanathan; 4. Play in culture: football/ Rawdon Wilson; 5. Home(s) abroad: diasporic identities in third spaces/ Sura P. Rath; 6. The politics of borrowing: theories in postmodern and postcolonial discourse and theory/ John Sumanth Muthyala; 7. The ideology of literary criticism: the case of judgement, transcendence and clerisy/ R. Shashidhar; 8. Self-consuming art and facts (why the novel splatters)/ Robert Newman; 9. Feminism and/as myth: feminist literary theory between Frye and Barthes/ Barbara Godard; 10. Global intimacies in the cultural studies classroom/ Anna Neill; 11. Curriculum as conversation/ Arthur S. Williams; 12. Curriculum wars: pragmatism as truce/ Steven R. Shelburne; 13. The invisible hand: structural politics and the undergraduate curriculum/ Tom Samet; 14. Break the sentence, then break the sequence: Lesbian Biomythographies/ Jaime Harker; 15. Postecolonial theory: a new ontopology and radical politics/ Pramod K. Nayar; 16. The world beyond the book: theory at the end of the millennium/ Kalidas Misra; 17. Criticism in crisis: a note on the politics of pedagogy/ Hiren Gohain; 18. Where are we going from here? A note on the dilemmas and uncertainties of an English teacher in an Indian university today/ Sarla Palkar.

Marathe, Sudhakar, Mohan Ramanan, and Robert Bellarmine eds. (1993). Provocations: The Teaching of English Literature in India. Chennai: Orient Blackswan.

Chapters: I. Prolegomenon: The ‘Crisis’ of English Studies in India // 1. Retrospect and Prospect/ C.D. Narasimhaiah; 2. Certain Long-Simmering Questions/ Meenakshi Mukherjee; 3. TELI and the Non-Metropolitan Areas/ Anjana Desai; 4. Beyond English: Teli’s Larger Agenda/ Makarand Paranjape; 5. Teaching Selves and Reading Letters/ Venkat Rao; 6. Objectives and ‘Meaningfulness’ of Research/ L.S.R. Krishna Sastry. II. The English Classroom in India // 7. Text, Authenticity and Motiviation/ N. Gilroy-Scott; 8. The Experience of Literature and the Literature of Experience/ Ayappa Paniker; 9. From Initial Response to Critical Interpretation; 10. Indian Aesthetics in TELI/ V.S. Seturaman; 11. The Teaching of Criticism and Aesthetics/ R.B. Patnakar; 12. The Pedagogical Value of the New Criticism/ C.T. Indra; 13. Student-Teacher Interaction/ Shanta Mahalanobis; 14. Teaching Style/ A.K. Sinha; 15. Approaching the Classroom/ Susan Oommen; 16. Writing Workshops and the Oblique Approach/ Don Slater; 17. The Teaching of American Literature/ R.K. Gupta; 18. Poetry, Reader, Lover/ Bibhu Padhi; 19. The Teaching of Drama/ P. Rajani; 20. A Learner-Centred Approach/ B.S. Chandrika; 21. Text into Performance/ V. Bharati and A. Giridhar Rao. III. Valediction Forbidding Mourning // 22. Review of Discussion/ Milind Malshi; 23. Positive Influences/ G.V. Subrahmanyam; 24. Towards Newer Beginnings/ S. Viswanathan.

Paranjape, Makarand and G.J.V. Prasad eds. (2009). Indian English and ‘Vernacular’ India. Delhi: Pearson India.

Chapters: Part I: Essays // 1. A Minute Stretching into Centuries: Macaulay, English, and India/ G. J. V. Prasad; 2. English Bhasha: A Commentary Through Three Indian Narratives/ K. Narayana Chandran; 3. ‘What Is English Doing in India?’ A Historical Perspective on the ‘Awkward’ Question/ Avadhesh Kumar Singh; 4. Hindi, English and ‘Hinglish’: Colonial Cousins and the Re Vernacularization of ‘National’ Language/ Akshya Saxena; 5.English in India and Language Resource Studies/ Probal Dasgupta; 6. Probal’s ArchWay/ John Oliver Perry; 7. Us not US: Post-colonialism and Vernacular Literature/ Sumanyu Satpathy; 8. Why Is There So Little Indian English Poetry in Contemporary Bengal?/ Santanu Majumdar; 9. Vernacularizing the ‘Master’ Tongue: Indian English and Its Con-texts/ Makarand Paranjape. Part II: Interventions // 10. Inglish, How Cool!/ Gurcharan Das; 11. Angrezi, Angrezier, Angreziest/ Neelum Saran Gour; 12. Writing in English: A Writerly Perspective/ Susan Visvanathan; 13. Gulkand and Rose Jam/ Shashi Deshpande; 14. Writing and Not Writing/ Kavery Nambisan; 15. Indian English and Vernacular India/ Bhalachandra Nemade; 16. Mother Tongue, Other Tongue/ K. Satchidanandan; 17. ‘Home Clothes and Party Clothes’: In Denial about English/ Lakshmi Kannan; 18. Literature in the Indian Bhashas: Front Yards and Backyards/ U. R. Anantha Murthy

Paranjape, Makarand, Amit Sarwal and Aneeta Rajendran eds. (2000). English Studies: Indian Perspectives. Delhi: Mantra.

Chapters: Reviewing English Studies in India // 1. To the Best of My Knowledge/ K Narayan Chandran;  2. A Case for Comparative Literary Studies/ Avadesh K Singh; 3. Critical Pedagogy and English Studies/ Kailash C Baral. British Literature // 4. British Studies/ Kapil Kapoor; 5. Shakespeare Studies/ Shormistha Panja; 6. British Literature in the Indian Teaching Machine/ Mou Chattopadhyaya. American Literature // 7. American Studies/ Anil Raina; 8. American Literature: Pasts, Presents and Future Possibilities/ Subarno Chattarji; 9. Teaching Multiethnic American Literature/ Navneet Sethi. Canadian Literature // 10. Canadian Studies/ Om P Juneja; 11. Looking ahead through the Rear View Mirror/ Uma Parameswaran; 12. Reading Margaret Atwood/ Debarati Bandyopadhyay. Australian Literature // 13. Australian Studies/ Santosh K Sareen; Through Australian Eyes/ Amit Sarwal; 14. Caring Cultures Sharing Imaginations/ Pradeep Trikha. African Literature // 15. African Studies/ Amit Sarwal; 16. Articulating Resistance/ Mala Pandurang; 17. Gupshup/ Anjali Gera Roy. Indian English Literature // 18. Studying Indian English Literature/ G J V Prasad; 19. Vernacularising the Master Tongue/ Makarand Paranjape; 20. No Longer at Unease/ Brinda Bose. Indian Texts in English Studies // 21. Indian Texts in the English Studies Classrooms/ Kapil Kapoor; 22. Classic Case: Studying Indian Texts for an MA in English/ Aniruddha Mukhopadhyay. Translation Studies // 23. Translation Studies/ G J V Prasad; 24. Theorising Translation and Translation Studies/ M Asaduddin; 25. The Pedagogy of the Translated/ Makarand Paranjape. Literary Theory // 26. Indics in the Pomo shop/ Saugata Bhaduri; 27. South Asian contribution to Contemporary Cultural Theory/ Saufata Bhaduri; 28. Towards a Pragmatic Approach: Criticism for and in India/ John Oliver Perry; 29. Artificial Intelligence and the Other side of Theory/ Aneeta Rajendran. Postcolonial Studies // 30. Postcolonial Studies/ V. Padma. 31. The End of Postcolonialism/ Makarand Paranjape; 32. Postcolonial Entirely Misses the Point/ Amrita Bhalla

Rajan, Rajeswari Sunder ed. (1992). The Lie of the Land: English Literary Studies in India. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Chapters: Background // 1. Fixing English: Nation, Language, Subject/ Rajeswari Sunder Rajan; 2. English in a Literate Society/ Gauri Viswanathan. The Colony and the Text // 3. Derozio: English Teacher/ Manju Dalmia. Pedagogy and Criticism // 4. Criticism and Pedagogy in the Indian Classroom/ Ania Loomba. Discussion: English Text/Indian Classroom // 5. Mansfield Park in Miranda House/ Ruth Vanita; 6. The Strange Case of Mohun Biswas/ Anuradha Marwah Roy; 7. Class in the Classroom: Pedagogical Encounters with Nectar in a Sieve/ Tapan Kumar Basu. Institutional Contexts // 8. Master English, Native Publisher: A Publishing Perspective on English Studies in India/ Rukun Advani; 9. Brokering English Studies: The British Council in India/ Rajeswari Sunder Rajan. Academic and Social Contexts: English Teachers and Students // 10. Attitudinal Orientation Towards Studying English Literature in India/ Yasmeen Lukmani; 11. Siting the Teacher/ Rimli Bhattacharya.  The Question(s) of Theory // 12. The Indian Academic and Resistance to Theory/ Suvir Kaul. Post-Colonial 'English' // 13. Mapping a Territory: Notes on Framing a Course/ Meenakshi Mukherjee; 14. 'History, Really Beginning': The Compulsions of Post-colonial Pedagogy/ Tejaswini Niranjana; 15. Dissimilar Twins: Language and Literature/ Rukmini Bhaya Nair; 16. The Burden of English Studies/ Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak. Annexure // 17. Landmarks in Official Educational Policy: Some Facts and Figures/ Lola Chatterji

Tharu, Susie ed. (1998). Subject to Change: Teaching Literature in the Nineties. Delhi: Orient Longman.

Chapters:  1. Government, Binding and Unbinding: Alienation and the Subject of Literature/ Susie Tharu; 2. Teaching the Bard in India/ Ania Loomba; 3. Figures, Configurations, Transfigurations/ Edward Said; 4. The Anatomy of a White Elephant: Notes on the Functioning of English Departments in India/ Srividya Natarajan, Nigel Joseph and S.V. Srinivas; 5. The Story of My ‘Sanskrit’/ Kumud Pawde; 6. Why I am Not a Hindu/ Kancha Ilaiah; 7. The Silence of the Subaltern Student/ Aniket Jaaware; 8. Questions for Cultural Politics/ Tejaswini Niranjana; 9. English Studies via Women’s Studies/ Rajeswari Sunder Rajan; 10. To be in Eng. Lit., Now That … The Voyage Out/ Satish Poduval; 11. Some Anthropological Observations on the Study of English Literature Prefaced by the Confessions of an English Teacher/ G.N. Devy; 12. Literary Translation: A technique for Teaching English Literature in a Bi-literary Context/ Vanamala Viswanatha; 13. Don’t State, Elicit: Strategies for Learner-focused, Text-based Teaching/ Yasmeen Lukmani; 14. Raymond Williams and British Colonialism/ Gauri Viswanathan; 15. Literature for the Empire: Rabindranath Tagore Reads English/ Mahasweta Sengupta; 16. “Ruining Everybody’s Fun”: Feminist Theory and Pleasure/ Srividya Natarajan and Rekha Pappu; 17. Some reflections on the Teaching of Literary Competence and Literature through language/ Shirin Kudchedkar; 18. Towards an Emancipatory Curriculum in English Studies/ K.P. Bhati; 19. “It Will Always Be Necessary to Go Again to Hyde Park”: Raymond Williams and English Studies/ Govind S. Shahani.

Chapters in books

Annamalai, E. (2004). “Medium of Power: the Question of English in Education in India”. In James W. Tollefson and Amy B.M. Tsui eds. Medium of Instruction Policies: Which Agenda? Whose Agenda? Mahwah NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Annamalai, E. (2008). “Equalizing Access to English in Education and Balancing Multilingualism in India”. In Dheram Premakumari (ed.). Negotiating Empowerment: Studies in English Language Education. Hyderabad: Orient Longman. 105-114.

Gupta, G.S. Balarama (1992). “Broadening the Spectrum: English Studies in India?” In Gordon Collier ed. Us/Them: Translation, Transcription and Identity in Post-Colonial Literary Cultures. Amsterdam: Rodopi. 161-66.

Krishnamurti, Bh. (1990). “The Regional Language vis-à-vis English as the Medium of Instruction in Higher Education: The Indian Dilemma”. In D.P. Pattanayak ed. Multilingualism in India. Cleveland OH: Multilingual Matters. 

Sudhakar, Marathe (2001). “Responsible Conscience? Or, How Not to Teach”. In D.A. Shankar, U.K. Natraj, and M. Satyanarayana Rao eds. Theory in Practice: Essays in Honour of C.D. Narasimhaiah. Mysore: Mahajana Education Society. 271-82.

Journal papers

Baral, Kailash C. (2000). “Postcoloniality, Critical Pedagogy, and English Studies in India”. Pedagogy 6:3, Fall. 475-91.

Bernabas, Simon G. (2011). “Contemporary Critical Theory and English Studies in India”. The IUP Journal of English Studies 6:2, June.

Chandran, K. Narayana (2006). “On English from India: Prepositions and Post-Positions”. The Cambridge Quarterly 35:2. 151-68.

Chandran, K. Narayana (2009). “English for ‘Specific’/ ‘Special’ Purposes: An Essay Concerning Indian Understanding”. Changing English 16:3, September. 201-12.

Durant, Alan (1986). “English Literature Teaching in India: Background and Present Situation”. Focus on English 2: 4. 2-9.

Evans, Stephen (2002). “Macaulay’s Minute Revisited: Colonial Language Policy in Nineteenth-Century India”. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 23:4. 260-81.

Faust, David and Richa Nagar (2001). “Politics of Development in Postcolonial India: English-Medium Education and Social Fracturing”. Economic and Political Weekly 36:30, 28 July. 2878-83.

Frykenberg, Robert E. (1988). “The Myth of English as a ‘Colonialist’ Imposition upon India: A Reappraisal with Special Reference to South India”. Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. No.2. 305-315.

Geetha, K.A. (2011). “Societal Transformation Through Literature”. Interventions 13:1, September. 398-421.

Ghosh, Suresh Chandra (1995). “Bentinck, Macaulay and the Introduction of English Education in India”. History of Education 24:1, March. 17-24.

Gohain, Hiren (1993). “Some Reflections on English Studies in India Now”. Journal of Contemporary Thought. 337-49.  

Gupta, G.S. Balarama (2007). “English Studies in India with Emphasis on Indian English Literature”. Journal of Indian Writing in English 35:2. 1-9.

Kochhar, R.K. (1992). “English Education in India: Hindu Anamnesis versus Muslim Torpor”. Economic and Political Weekly 27: 48, 28 November. 2609-2616.

Mekala (2005). “Towards developing an alternative syllabus for students majoring in
English Literature”. The Journal of ELT (India) 43:4. 30-36.

Mittapalli, Rajeshwar (2007). “English in India: Countering the Prejudices”. The ICFAI Journal of English Studies 2.2, June 2007. 21-27.

Nagarajan, S. (1981). “The Decline of English in India: Some Historical Notes”. College English 43:7, November. 663-70.

Rajan, Rajeswari Sunder (1986). “After ‘Orientalism’: Colonialism and English Literary Studies in India”. Social Scientist 14:7, July. 23-35.

Rajan, Rajeswari Sunder (2008). “English Literary Studies, Women’s Studies and Feminism in India”. Economic and Political Weekly 43:43, Oct.25-31. 66-71.

Raley, Rita (2000). “Cadmus Britannicus: Between Language and Literature in British India”. Ariel 31:1-2, January-April. 101-25.

Roy, Modhumita (1993). “The Englishing of India: Class Formation and Social Privilege”. Social Scientist 21:5/6, May/June. 36-62.  >> Also published as “‘Englishing India’: Reinstituting Class and Social Privilege”. Social Text 39, Summer 1994. 83-109.

Seshadri, C.K. (1997). “English Studies in India”. In Kar Prafulla C. ed. Critical Theory:
Western and Indian. Delhi: Pencraft International. 201-211.

Tasildar, Ravindra B. (2011). “Trends in General English Courses in Indian Universities”. The IUP Journal of English Studies 6:1, March. 67-72.

Magazine/newspaper articles (post-1990)

Bose, Brinda and Prasanta Chakravarty (2010). “English at the Marketplace”. The Telegraph (Calcutta), 24 June.

Jagirdar, Sarabjit (2010). “Linking Pay with Performance”. Hindustan Times, 25 May

Mohapatra, Himanshu S. (2004). “English in the Wake of NAAC”. The Hindu, 2 May.

Mukhia, Harbans (2009). “Waking the Higher Ed Elephant”. Indian Express, 29 June.

Rajan, P.K. (2000). “English Studies at the Crossroads”. The Hindu, 14 November.

Singh, V.D. (2003). “Many Perspectives, One Language”. The Hindu, 28 January.

Roy, Anita (1995). “Uprooting Red Daffodils”. Times Higher Education Supplement, 2 June, issue 1178. 18.

Suroor, Hasan (1997). “Indian Bookworms Turn”. Times Higher Education Supplement, 7 February, issue 1266. 48.

Suroor, Hasan (1998). “Bengalis Lobby for English”. Times Higher Education Supplement, 10 July, issue 1340. 10.

Suroor, Hasan (1997). “English Ditched in War on Colonial Culture”. Times Higher Education Supplement, 15 August, issue 1293. 9.

Suroor, Hasan (2000). “Bond Enters Canon”. Times Higher Education Supplement, 6 October, issue 1456. 11

“University of Delhi Includes Indian Authors for First Time in English-Literature Courses” (1999). Chronicle of Higher Education 45: 28, 19 March.

Relevant policy papers/research on policy

Altbach, Philip G. (1968). “Student Politics and Higher Education in India”. Daedalus 97:1, Winter. 254-73. 

Altbach, Philip G. (1969). Turmoil and Transition: Higher Education and Student Politics in India. New York: Basic.

Chaudhuri, Supriya (2011). “What is to be done? Economies of knowledge”. Thesis Eleven 105:1, May. 7-22. 

Gov. of India (1967). The Study of English in India: Report of the Study Group submitted to the Education Commission in 1965. New Delhi: Ministry of Education.

Gov. of India (1971). Teaching of English: Report of the Study Group on Teaching of English. New Delhi: Ministry of Education and Youth Services.

Gov. of India (2006). Report of National Knowledge Commission.
[available as a PDF download]

Gupta, O.P. (1993). Higher Education in India Since Independence: UGC and Its Approach. Delhi: Concept.

Jaidha, Manju (2004). “The Road to Hyderabad: MELUS in India”. MELUS 29: ¾, Fall/Winter. 481-98.

Jayaraman, N. (1993). “The Language Question in Higher Education in India: Trends and Issues”. Higher Education 26:1, July. 93-112.

National Commission for Higher Education and Research Bill, 2010.
[available online]

Panikkar, K.N. and M. Bhaskaran Nair eds. (2011). Emerging Trends in Higher Education in India. Delhi: Pearson.

Rajan, Rajeswari Sunder (2011). “The Semester System: Pros and Cons”. Economic and Political Weekly Vol.46, 16 July. 19-22.

Ram, Atma (1990). Higher Education in India: Issues and Perspectives. Delhi: Mittal.

Scrase, Timothy J. (2002). “Globalization and the Cultural Politics of Educational Change: the Controversy over the Teaching of English in West Bengal, India”.  International Review of Education 48:5, September. 361-75.

University Grants Commission (1989). Report of Curriculum Development Centre in English. New Delhi: University Grants Commission.

Vijayan, P.K. (2012). “The semester system is a ‘free market’ utopia”. Tehelka 12 January.
[available online]

Relevant websites / blogs

MargHumanities website, esp. Englit page

Humanities Underground


A bibliography is a listing of the books, magazines, and Internet sources that you use in designing, carrying out, and understanding your science fair project. But, you develop a bibliography only after first preparing a background research plan — a road map of the research questions you need to answer. Before you compose your bibliography, you will need to develop your background research plan.

With your background research plan in hand, you will find sources of information that will help you with your science fair project. As you find this information it will be important for you to write down where the sources are from. You can use the Bibliography Worksheet to help you, just print out a few copies and take them with you to the library. As you find a source, write in all of the necessary information. This way, when you are typing your bibliography you won't need to go back to the library and find any missing information. The more information you write down about your source, the easier it will be for you to find if you want to read it again.

When you are writing your report, you will use the sources in your bibliography to remind you of different facts and background information you used for your science fair project. Each time you use some information from a source, you will need to cite the source that it came from. To cite a source, simply put the author's name and the date of the publication in parentheses (Author, date) in your text. If the person reading your report wants to find the information and read more about it, they can look up the reference in your bibliography for more detail about the source. That is why each source you use must be listed in a detailed bibliography with enough information for someone to go and find it by themselves.

Your bibliography should include a minimum of three written sources of information about your topic from books, encyclopedias, and periodicals. You may have additional information from the Web if appropriate.

Examples of Bibliography Formats

There are standards for documenting sources of information in research papers. Even though different journals may use a slightly different format for the bibliography, they all contain the same basic information. The most basic information that each reference should have is the author's name, the title, the date, and the source.

Different types of sources have different formatting in the bibliography. In American schools, the two most commonly used guidelines for this formatting are published by the MLA (Modern Language Association) and the APA (American Psychological Association).

The MLA guidelines call for the bibliography to be called Works Cited. Science Buddies has summarized some of the most common MLA formats for your use: MLA Format Examples.

The APA guidelines call for the bibliography to be called the Reference List. Science Buddies has summarized some of the most common APA formats for your use: APA Format Examples.

Your teacher will probably tell you which set of guidelines to use.

On the Science Buddies website we use the following guidelines:

  • APA format for online sources
  • MLA format for all other sources
  • APA (author, date, page) format for citations in our articles

Getting Started

Download and print the Science Buddies Bibliography Worksheet. Keep several copies with you and fill in the information as you do your research. When you are finished, type the information from the worksheet into a formatted bibliography using the examples listed above.

Sample Bibliographies

Sample Bibliography: MLA Works Cited Format
Sample Bibliography: APA Reference List Format

Bibliography Checklist

What Makes a Good Bibliography?For a Good Bibliography, You Should Answer "Yes" to Every Question
Have you included at least 3 sources of written information on your subject? (If you include Web pages, they should be in addition to the written sources.)Yes / No
Have you included complete information to identify each of your sources (author's name, the title, the date, and where it was published)?Yes / No
Have you used the proper format for each of your sources? Most teachers prefer the MLA or APA formats. Yes / No
Is your Bibliography in alphabetical order, by author's last name?Yes / No
Do you have sources of information to answer all of your research questions?Yes / No

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